Two Spirit Terms in Tribal Languages

Aleut: Male-bodied Ayagigux’ (“man transformed into a woman”)

Female-bodied Tayagigux’ (“woman transformed into a man”)

Arapaho: Male-bodied Haxu’xan (singular), Hoxuxuno (plural) (“rotten bone”)

Arikara: Male-bodied Kuxa’t

Assiniboine: Male-bodied Winktan

Bannock: Male-bodied Tuva’sa (“sterile”)

Bella Coola: Male-bodied Sx’ints (“hermaphrodite”)

Blackfoot, Southern Peigan: Male-bodied Aakíí’skassi (“acts like a woman”)

Female-bodied Saahkómaapi’aakííkoan (“boy-girl”) [ *strictly a nickname given to Running Eagle* ]

Cheyenne: Male-bodied He’eman (singular), He’emane’o (plural) (he’e = “woman”)

Female-bodied Hetaneman (singular), Hatane’mane’o (plural) (hetan = “man”)

Chickasaw, Choctaw: Male-bodied Hoobuk

Chumash: Male-bodied Agi

Cocopa: Male-bodied Elha (“coward”)

Female-bodied Warrhameh

Coeur d’Alene: Female-bodied St’amia (“hermaphrodite”)

Cree: Male-bodied Aayahkwew (“neither man or woman”)

Crow: Male-bodied Bote/Bate/Bade (“not man, not woman”)

Dakota/Lakota/Nakota (Oyate): Male-bodied Winkte, a contraction of winyanktehca.  (‘wants’ or ‘wishes’ to be [like a] woman”).

Female-bodied Bloka egla wa ke (“thinks she can act like a man”) [ editor’s note: cited by Beatrice Medicine, its age unknown ]

Flathead: (Interior Salish) Male-bodied Ma’kali

Gros Ventre: Male-bodied Athuth

Hidatsa: Male-bodied: Miati (“to be impelled against one’s will to act the woman,” “woman compelled”)

Hopi: Male-bodied: Ho’va

Illinois Male-bodied: Ikoueta Female-bodied: Ickoue ne kioussa (“hunting women”)

Ingalik Male-bodied: Nok’olhanxodeleane (“woman pretenders”) Female-bodied: Chelxodeleane (“man pretenders”)

Inuit Male-bodied: Sipiniq (“infant whose sex changes at birth”)

Juaneno Male-bodied: Kwit

Karankawa Male-bodied: Monaguia

Keresan, Acoma Male-bodied: Kokwi’ma

Laguna Male-bodied: Kok’we’ma

Klamath Male-/Female-bodied: Tw!inna’ek

Kutenai Male-bodied: Kupatke’tek (“to imitate a woman”) Female-bodied: Titqattek (“pretending to be a man”)

Kumeyaay, Tipai, Kamia Female-bodied: Warharmi

Luiseno, San Juan Capistrano Male-bodied: Cuit Mountain– Male-bodied: Uluqui

Mandan Male-bodied: Mihdacka (mih-ha = “woman”)

Maricopa Male-bodied: Ilyaxai’ (“girlish”) Female-bodied: Kwiraxame

Mescalero Apache Male-bodied: Nde’isdzan (“man-woman”)

Miami Male-bodied: Waupeengwoatar (“the white face,” possibly the name of a particular person who was two-spirit)

Micmac Male-bodied: Geenumu gesallagee (“he loves men,” perhaps correctly spelt ji’nmue’sm gesalatl)

Miwok Male-bodied: Osabu (osa = “woman”)

Mohave Maled-bodied: Alyha (“coward”) Female-bodied: Hwame

Western Mono Male-bodied: Tai’up

Navajo Male-/female-/intersexed-bodied: Nadleeh or nadle (gender class/category), nadleehi (singular), nadleehe (plural) (“one in a constant state of change,” “one who changes,” “being transformed”)

Nisenan: (Southern Maidu) Male-bodied: Osa’pu

Ojibwa (Chippewa): Male-bodied Agokwa (“man-woman”) Female-bodied: Okitcitakwe (“warrior woman”)

Omaha, Osage, Ponca: Male-bodied: Mixu’ga (“instructed by the moon,” “moon instructed”)

Otoe, Kansa (Kaw):  Male-bodied Mixo’ge (“instructed by the moon,” “moon instructed”)

Papago (Tohono O’odham), Pima (Akimel O’odham): Male-bodied Wik’ovat (“like a girl”)

Paiute: Northern Male-bodied: Tudayapi (“dress like other sex”) Southern Male-bodied: Tuwasawuts

Patwin: Male-bodied Panaro bobum pi (“he has two [sexes]”)

Pawnee: Male-bodied: Ku’saat

Pomo: Northern Male-bodied: Das (Da = “woman”) Southern Male-bodied: T!un

Potawatomi Male-bodied: M’netokwe (“supernatural, extraordinary,” Manito plus female suffix)

Quinault Male-bodied: Keknatsa’nxwixw (“part woman”) Female-bodied: Tawkxwa’nsixw (“man-acting”)

Salinan Male-bodied: Coya

Sanpoil Male-bodied: St’a’mia (“hermaphrodite”)

Sauk (Sac), Fox Male-bodied: I-coo-coo-a (“man-woman”)

Shoshone: Male-bodied Taikwahni tainnapa’ or sometimes taikwahni

Female-bodied Taikwahni wa’ippena’

Lemhi: Male/Female-bodied: Tubasa Female-bodied: Waipu sungwe (“woman-half”)

Gosiute Male-bodied: Tuvasa

Promontory Point Male-bodied: Tubasa waip (“sterile woman”), Female-bodied: Waipu sungwe (“woman-half”)

Nevada Male-bodied: Tainna wa’ippe (“man-woman”) Female-bodied: Nuwuducka (“female hunter”)

Takelma Male-bodied: Xa’wisa

Tewa Male-/Female-bodied: Kwido

Tiwa Isleta Male-bodied: Lhunide

Tlingit Male-bodied: Gatxan (“coward”)

Tsimshian  Noots; Plural g̱a̱noots; Dialectal Variant g̱a̱noodzit 

Southern Ute: Male-bodied Tuwasawits

Winnebago: (Ho-Chunk) Male-bodied Shiange (“unmanly man”)

Wishram: Male-bodied Ik!e’laskait

Yuma (Quechan): Male-bodied: Elxa’ (“coward”)

Female-bodied Kwe’rhame

Yup’ik Chugach/Pacific (Alutiiq, Southern Alaskan): Male-bodied Aranu’tiq (“man-woman”)

St. Lawrence Island (Siberian Yup’ik, Western Alaskan): Male-bodied Anasik

Female-bodied Uktasik

Kuskokwim River (Central Alaskan): Male-bodied Aranaruaq (“woman-like”)

Female-bodied Angutnguaq (“man-like”)

Zapotec: Male-bodied Muxe

Zuni: Male-bodied: Lha’mana (“behave like a woman”)

Female-bodied: Katotse (“boy-girl”)

Citation: “Two- Spirit.” Internet Archive Wayback Machine. N.p., n.d. Web